Cornell University Peace Studies Program, Occasional paper # 29
Deaths in Wars and Conflicts in the 20th Century
The monograph contains:
- A data section, tabulating both civilian and combatant deaths due to all causes for 157 events between 1945 and 2000 in 72 countries, grouped in seven geographic regions;
- An itemized total sum of deaths in wars and conflicts "killed or allowed to die by human decision" of approximately 231 million for the 100 years of the 20th Century. The separate components of this sum are provided. The reference to the consequence of political decisions by governments includes massive starvation resulting from government campaigns and not natural causes, major loss of life in internment or work camps systems, and instances of genocide.
- The monograph then includes summaries of the events that took place in Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo since 1990, and since 2003 in the Darfur province of Sudan. It analyzes the nature of the response or non-response to these by the international community. These sections demonstrate that by far the greater portion of loss of life in these events could have been prevented by different international policies both prior to and during the crisis phases of these events.
- Finally, the monograph concludes with an analysis of the problem of international intervention.